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@chapter Input Devices
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@c man begin INPUT DEVICES

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Input devices are configured elements in Libav which allow to access
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the data coming from a multimedia device attached to your system.

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When you configure your Libav build, all the supported input devices
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are enabled by default. You can list all available ones using the
configure option "--list-indevs".
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You can disable all the input devices using the configure option
"--disable-indevs", and selectively enable an input device using the
option "--enable-indev=@var{INDEV}", or you can disable a particular
input device using the option "--disable-indev=@var{INDEV}".

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The option "-formats" of the av* tools will display the list of
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supported input devices (amongst the demuxers).

A description of the currently available input devices follows.

@section alsa

ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) input device.

To enable this input device during configuration you need libasound
installed on your system.

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This device allows capturing from an ALSA device. The name of the
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device to capture has to be an ALSA card identifier.

An ALSA identifier has the syntax:
@example
hw:@var{CARD}[,@var{DEV}[,@var{SUBDEV}]]
@end example

where the @var{DEV} and @var{SUBDEV} components are optional.

The three arguments (in order: @var{CARD},@var{DEV},@var{SUBDEV})
specify card number or identifier, device number and subdevice number
(-1 means any).

To see the list of cards currently recognized by your system check the
files @file{/proc/asound/cards} and @file{/proc/asound/devices}.

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For example to capture with @command{avconv} from an ALSA device with
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card id 0, you may run the command:
@example
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avconv -f alsa -i hw:0 alsaout.wav
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@end example

For more information see:
@url{http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-lib/pcm.html}

@section bktr

BSD video input device.

@section dv1394

Linux DV 1394 input device.

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@section fbdev

Linux framebuffer input device.

The Linux framebuffer is a graphic hardware-independent abstraction
layer to show graphics on a computer monitor, typically on the
console. It is accessed through a file device node, usually
@file{/dev/fb0}.

For more detailed information read the file
Documentation/fb/framebuffer.txt included in the Linux source tree.

To record from the framebuffer device @file{/dev/fb0} with
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@command{avconv}:
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@example
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avconv -f fbdev -r 10 -i /dev/fb0 out.avi
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@end example

You can take a single screenshot image with the command:
@example
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avconv -f fbdev -frames:v 1 -r 1 -i /dev/fb0 screenshot.jpeg
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@end example

See also @url{http://linux-fbdev.sourceforge.net/}, and fbset(1).

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@section jack

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JACK input device.
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To enable this input device during configuration you need libjack
installed on your system.

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A JACK input device creates one or more JACK writable clients, one for
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each audio channel, with name @var{client_name}:input_@var{N}, where
@var{client_name} is the name provided by the application, and @var{N}
is a number which identifies the channel.
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Each writable client will send the acquired data to the Libav input
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device.

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Once you have created one or more JACK readable clients, you need to
connect them to one or more JACK writable clients.
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To connect or disconnect JACK clients you can use the
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@file{jack_connect} and @file{jack_disconnect} programs, or do it
through a graphical interface, for example with @file{qjackctl}.

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To list the JACK clients and their properties you can invoke the command
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@file{jack_lsp}.

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Follows an example which shows how to capture a JACK readable client
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with @command{avconv}.
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@example
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# Create a JACK writable client with name "libav".
$ avconv -f jack -i libav -y out.wav
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# Start the sample jack_metro readable client.
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$ jack_metro -b 120 -d 0.2 -f 4000

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# List the current JACK clients.
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$ jack_lsp -c
system:capture_1
system:capture_2
system:playback_1
system:playback_2
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libav:input_1
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metro:120_bpm

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# Connect metro to the avconv writable client.
$ jack_connect metro:120_bpm libav:input_1
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@end example

For more information read:
@url{http://jackaudio.org/}

@section libdc1394

IIDC1394 input device, based on libdc1394 and libraw1394.

@section oss

Open Sound System input device.

The filename to provide to the input device is the device node
representing the OSS input device, and is usually set to
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@file{/dev/dsp}.
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For example to grab from @file{/dev/dsp} using @command{avconv} use the
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command:
@example
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avconv -f oss -i /dev/dsp /tmp/oss.wav
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@end example

For more information about OSS see:
@url{http://manuals.opensound.com/usersguide/dsp.html}

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@section pulse

pulseaudio input device.

To enable this input device during configuration you need libpulse-simple
installed in your system.

The filename to provide to the input device is a source device or the
string "default"

To list the pulse source devices and their properties you can invoke
the command @file{pactl list sources}.

@example
avconv -f pulse -i default /tmp/pulse.wav
@end example

@subsection @var{server} AVOption

The syntax is:
@example
-server @var{server name}
@end example

Connects to a specific server.

@subsection @var{name} AVOption

The syntax is:
@example
-name @var{application name}
@end example

Specify the application name pulse will use when showing active clients,
by default it is "libav"

@subsection @var{stream_name} AVOption

The syntax is:
@example
-stream_name @var{stream name}
@end example

Specify the stream name pulse will use when showing active streams,
by default it is "record"

@subsection @var{sample_rate} AVOption

The syntax is:
@example
-sample_rate @var{samplerate}
@end example

Specify the samplerate in Hz, by default 48kHz is used.

@subsection @var{channels} AVOption

The syntax is:
@example
-channels @var{N}
@end example

Specify the channels in use, by default 2 (stereo) is set.

@subsection @var{frame_size} AVOption

The syntax is:
@example
-frame_size @var{bytes}
@end example

Specify the number of byte per frame, by default it is set to 1024.

@subsection @var{fragment_size} AVOption

The syntax is:
@example
-fragment_size @var{bytes}
@end example

Specify the minimal buffering fragment in pulseaudio, it will affect the
audio latency. By default it is unset.

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@section sndio

sndio input device.

To enable this input device during configuration you need libsndio
installed on your system.

The filename to provide to the input device is the device node
representing the sndio input device, and is usually set to
@file{/dev/audio0}.

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For example to grab from @file{/dev/audio0} using @command{avconv} use the
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command:
@example
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avconv -f sndio -i /dev/audio0 /tmp/oss.wav
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@end example

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@section video4linux2
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Video4Linux2 input video device.
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The name of the device to grab is a file device node, usually Linux
systems tend to automatically create such nodes when the device
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(e.g. an USB webcam) is plugged into the system, and has a name of the
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kind @file{/dev/video@var{N}}, where @var{N} is a number associated to
the device.

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Video4Linux2 devices usually support a limited set of
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@var{width}x@var{height} sizes and framerates. You can check which are
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supported using @command{-list_formats all} for Video4Linux2 devices.
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Some usage examples of the video4linux2 devices with avconv and avplay:
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@example
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# List supported formats for a video4linux2 device.
avplay -f video4linux2 -list_formats all /dev/video0

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# Grab and show the input of a video4linux2 device.
avplay -f video4linux2 -framerate 30 -video_size hd720 /dev/video0
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# Grab and record the input of a video4linux2 device, leave the
framerate and size as previously set.
avconv -f video4linux2 -input_format mjpeg -i /dev/video0 out.mpeg
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@end example

@section vfwcap

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VfW (Video for Windows) capture input device.
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The filename passed as input is the capture driver number, ranging from
0 to 9. You may use "list" as filename to print a list of drivers. Any
other filename will be interpreted as device number 0.

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@section x11grab

X11 video input device.

This device allows to capture a region of an X11 display.

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The filename passed as input has the syntax:
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@example
[@var{hostname}]:@var{display_number}.@var{screen_number}[+@var{x_offset},@var{y_offset}]
@end example

@var{hostname}:@var{display_number}.@var{screen_number} specifies the
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X11 display name of the screen to grab from. @var{hostname} can be
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omitted, and defaults to "localhost". The environment variable
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@env{DISPLAY} contains the default display name.

@var{x_offset} and @var{y_offset} specify the offsets of the grabbed
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area with respect to the top-left border of the X11 screen. They
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default to 0.

Check the X11 documentation (e.g. man X) for more detailed information.

Use the @file{dpyinfo} program for getting basic information about the
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properties of your X11 display (e.g. grep for "name" or "dimensions").
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For example to grab from @file{:0.0} using @command{avconv}:
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@example
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avconv -f x11grab -r 25 -s cif -i :0.0 out.mpg
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# Grab at position 10,20.
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avconv -f x11grab -r 25 -s cif -i :0.0+10,20 out.mpg
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@end example

@subsection @var{follow_mouse} AVOption

The syntax is:
@example
-follow_mouse centered|@var{PIXELS}
@end example

When it is specified with "centered", the grabbing region follows the mouse
pointer and keeps the pointer at the center of region; otherwise, the region
follows only when the mouse pointer reaches within @var{PIXELS} (greater than
zero) to the edge of region.

For example:
@example
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avconv -f x11grab -follow_mouse centered -r 25 -s cif -i :0.0 out.mpg
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# Follows only when the mouse pointer reaches within 100 pixels to edge
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avconv -f x11grab -follow_mouse 100 -r 25 -s cif -i :0.0 out.mpg
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@end example

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@subsection @var{show_region} AVOption

The syntax is:
@example
-show_region 1
@end example

If @var{show_region} AVOption is specified with @var{1}, then the grabbing
region will be indicated on screen. With this option, it's easy to know what is
being grabbed if only a portion of the screen is grabbed.

For example:
@example
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avconv -f x11grab -show_region 1 -r 25 -s cif -i :0.0+10,20 out.mpg
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# With follow_mouse
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avconv -f x11grab -follow_mouse centered -show_region 1  -r 25 -s cif -i :0.0 out.mpg
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@end example

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@subsection @var{grab_x} @var{grab_y} AVOption

The syntax is:
@example
-grab_x @var{x_offset} -grab_y @var{y_offset}
@end example

Set the grabing region coordinates. The are expressed as offset from the top left
corner of the X11 window. The default value is 0.

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@c man end INPUT DEVICES