Commit 6cf13ddb authored by Erwan Croze's avatar Erwan Croze 👋🏻
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libjpeg-turbo Licenses
======================
libjpeg-turbo is covered by three compatible BSD-style open source licenses:
- The IJG (Independent JPEG Group) License, which is listed in
[README.ijg](README.ijg)
This license applies to the libjpeg API library and associated programs
(any code inherited from libjpeg, and any modifications to that code.)
- The Modified (3-clause) BSD License, which is listed in
[turbojpeg.c](turbojpeg.c)
This license covers the TurboJPEG API library and associated programs.
- The zlib License, which is listed in [simd/jsimdext.inc](simd/jsimdext.inc)
This license is a subset of the other two, and it covers the libjpeg-turbo
SIMD extensions.
Complying with the libjpeg-turbo Licenses
=========================================
This section provides a roll-up of the libjpeg-turbo licensing terms, to the
best of our understanding.
1. If you are distributing a modified version of the libjpeg-turbo source,
then:
1. You cannot alter or remove any existing copyright or license notices
from the source.
**Origin**
- Clause 1 of the IJG License
- Clause 1 of the Modified BSD License
- Clauses 1 and 3 of the zlib License
2. You must add your own copyright notice to the header of each source
file you modified, so others can tell that you modified that file (if
there is not an existing copyright header in that file, then you can
simply add a notice stating that you modified the file.)
**Origin**
- Clause 1 of the IJG License
- Clause 2 of the zlib License
3. You must include the IJG README file, and you must not alter any of the
copyright or license text in that file.
**Origin**
- Clause 1 of the IJG License
2. If you are distributing only libjpeg-turbo binaries without the source, or
if you are distributing an application that statically links with
libjpeg-turbo, then:
1. Your product documentation must include a message stating:
This software is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG
Group.
**Origin**
- Clause 2 of the IJG license
2. If your binary distribution includes or uses the TurboJPEG API, then
your product documentation must include the text of the Modified BSD
License.
**Origin**
- Clause 2 of the Modified BSD License
3. You cannot use the name of the IJG or The libjpeg-turbo Project or the
contributors thereof in advertising, publicity, etc.
**Origin**
- IJG License
- Clause 3 of the Modified BSD License
4. The IJG and The libjpeg-turbo Project do not warrant libjpeg-turbo to be
free of defects, nor do we accept any liability for undesirable
consequences resulting from your use of the software.
**Origin**
- IJG License
- Modified BSD License
- zlib License
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libjpeg-turbo note: This file has been modified by The libjpeg-turbo Project
to include only information relevant to libjpeg-turbo, to wordsmith certain
sections, and to remove impolitic language that existed in the libjpeg v8
README. It is included only for reference. Please see README.md for
information specific to libjpeg-turbo.
The Independent JPEG Group's JPEG software
==========================================
This distribution contains a release of the Independent JPEG Group's free JPEG
software. You are welcome to redistribute this software and to use it for any
purpose, subject to the conditions under LEGAL ISSUES, below.
This software is the work of Tom Lane, Guido Vollbeding, Philip Gladstone,
Bill Allombert, Jim Boucher, Lee Crocker, Bob Friesenhahn, Ben Jackson,
Julian Minguillon, Luis Ortiz, George Phillips, Davide Rossi, Ge' Weijers,
and other members of the Independent JPEG Group.
IJG is not affiliated with the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 standards committee
(also known as JPEG, together with ITU-T SG16).
DOCUMENTATION ROADMAP
=====================
This file contains the following sections:
OVERVIEW General description of JPEG and the IJG software.
LEGAL ISSUES Copyright, lack of warranty, terms of distribution.
REFERENCES Where to learn more about JPEG.
ARCHIVE LOCATIONS Where to find newer versions of this software.
FILE FORMAT WARS Software *not* to get.
TO DO Plans for future IJG releases.
Other documentation files in the distribution are:
User documentation:
usage.txt Usage instructions for cjpeg, djpeg, jpegtran,
rdjpgcom, and wrjpgcom.
*.1 Unix-style man pages for programs (same info as usage.txt).
wizard.txt Advanced usage instructions for JPEG wizards only.
change.log Version-to-version change highlights.
Programmer and internal documentation:
libjpeg.txt How to use the JPEG library in your own programs.
example.c Sample code for calling the JPEG library.
structure.txt Overview of the JPEG library's internal structure.
coderules.txt Coding style rules --- please read if you contribute code.
Please read at least usage.txt. Some information can also be found in the JPEG
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) article. See ARCHIVE LOCATIONS below to find
out where to obtain the FAQ article.
If you want to understand how the JPEG code works, we suggest reading one or
more of the REFERENCES, then looking at the documentation files (in roughly
the order listed) before diving into the code.
OVERVIEW
========
This package contains C software to implement JPEG image encoding, decoding,
and transcoding. JPEG (pronounced "jay-peg") is a standardized compression
method for full-color and grayscale images. JPEG's strong suit is compressing
photographic images or other types of images that have smooth color and
brightness transitions between neighboring pixels. Images with sharp lines or
other abrupt features may not compress well with JPEG, and a higher JPEG
quality may have to be used to avoid visible compression artifacts with such
images.
JPEG is lossy, meaning that the output pixels are not necessarily identical to
the input pixels. However, on photographic content and other "smooth" images,
very good compression ratios can be obtained with no visible compression
artifacts, and extremely high compression ratios are possible if you are
willing to sacrifice image quality (by reducing the "quality" setting in the
compressor.)
This software implements JPEG baseline, extended-sequential, and progressive
compression processes. Provision is made for supporting all variants of these
processes, although some uncommon parameter settings aren't implemented yet.
We have made no provision for supporting the hierarchical or lossless
processes defined in the standard.
We provide a set of library routines for reading and writing JPEG image files,
plus two sample applications "cjpeg" and "djpeg", which use the library to
perform conversion between JPEG and some other popular image file formats.
The library is intended to be reused in other applications.
In order to support file conversion and viewing software, we have included
considerable functionality beyond the bare JPEG coding/decoding capability;
for example, the color quantization modules are not strictly part of JPEG
decoding, but they are essential for output to colormapped file formats or
colormapped displays. These extra functions can be compiled out of the
library if not required for a particular application.
We have also included "jpegtran", a utility for lossless transcoding between
different JPEG processes, and "rdjpgcom" and "wrjpgcom", two simple
applications for inserting and extracting textual comments in JFIF files.
The emphasis in designing this software has been on achieving portability and
flexibility, while also making it fast enough to be useful. In particular,
the software is not intended to be read as a tutorial on JPEG. (See the
REFERENCES section for introductory material.) Rather, it is intended to
be reliable, portable, industrial-strength code. We do not claim to have
achieved that goal in every aspect of the software, but we strive for it.
We welcome the use of this software as a component of commercial products.
No royalty is required, but we do ask for an acknowledgement in product
documentation, as described under LEGAL ISSUES.
LEGAL ISSUES
============
In plain English:
1. We don't promise that this software works. (But if you find any bugs,
please let us know!)
2. You can use this software for whatever you want. You don't have to pay us.
3. You may not pretend that you wrote this software. If you use it in a
program, you must acknowledge somewhere in your documentation that
you've used the IJG code.
In legalese:
The authors make NO WARRANTY or representation, either express or implied,
with respect to this software, its quality, accuracy, merchantability, or
fitness for a particular purpose. This software is provided "AS IS", and you,
its user, assume the entire risk as to its quality and accuracy.
This software is copyright (C) 1991-2016, Thomas G. Lane, Guido Vollbeding.
All Rights Reserved except as specified below.
Permission is hereby granted to use, copy, modify, and distribute this
software (or portions thereof) for any purpose, without fee, subject to these
conditions:
(1) If any part of the source code for this software is distributed, then this
README file must be included, with this copyright and no-warranty notice
unaltered; and any additions, deletions, or changes to the original files
must be clearly indicated in accompanying documentation.
(2) If only executable code is distributed, then the accompanying
documentation must state that "this software is based in part on the work of
the Independent JPEG Group".
(3) Permission for use of this software is granted only if the user accepts
full responsibility for any undesirable consequences; the authors accept
NO LIABILITY for damages of any kind.
These conditions apply to any software derived from or based on the IJG code,
not just to the unmodified library. If you use our work, you ought to
acknowledge us.
Permission is NOT granted for the use of any IJG author's name or company name
in advertising or publicity relating to this software or products derived from
it. This software may be referred to only as "the Independent JPEG Group's
software".
We specifically permit and encourage the use of this software as the basis of
commercial products, provided that all warranty or liability claims are
assumed by the product vendor.
The Unix configuration script "configure" was produced with GNU Autoconf.
It is copyright by the Free Software Foundation but is freely distributable.
The same holds for its supporting scripts (config.guess, config.sub,
ltmain.sh). Another support script, install-sh, is copyright by X Consortium
but is also freely distributable.
The IJG distribution formerly included code to read and write GIF files.
To avoid entanglement with the Unisys LZW patent (now expired), GIF reading
support has been removed altogether, and the GIF writer has been simplified
to produce "uncompressed GIFs". This technique does not use the LZW
algorithm; the resulting GIF files are larger than usual, but are readable
by all standard GIF decoders.
We are required to state that
"The Graphics Interchange Format(c) is the Copyright property of
CompuServe Incorporated. GIF(sm) is a Service Mark property of
CompuServe Incorporated."
REFERENCES
==========
We recommend reading one or more of these references before trying to
understand the innards of the JPEG software.
The best short technical introduction to the JPEG compression algorithm is
Wallace, Gregory K. "The JPEG Still Picture Compression Standard",
Communications of the ACM, April 1991 (vol. 34 no. 4), pp. 30-44.
(Adjacent articles in that issue discuss MPEG motion picture compression,
applications of JPEG, and related topics.) If you don't have the CACM issue
handy, a PDF file containing a revised version of Wallace's article is
available at http://www.ijg.org/files/Wallace.JPEG.pdf. The file (actually
a preprint for an article that appeared in IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics)
omits the sample images that appeared in CACM, but it includes corrections
and some added material. Note: the Wallace article is copyright ACM and IEEE,
and it may not be used for commercial purposes.
A somewhat less technical, more leisurely introduction to JPEG can be found in
"The Data Compression Book" by Mark Nelson and Jean-loup Gailly, published by
M&T Books (New York), 2nd ed. 1996, ISBN 1-55851-434-1. This book provides
good explanations and example C code for a multitude of compression methods
including JPEG. It is an excellent source if you are comfortable reading C
code but don't know much about data compression in general. The book's JPEG
sample code is far from industrial-strength, but when you are ready to look
at a full implementation, you've got one here...
The best currently available description of JPEG is the textbook "JPEG Still
Image Data Compression Standard" by William B. Pennebaker and Joan L.
Mitchell, published by Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993, ISBN 0-442-01272-1.
Price US$59.95, 638 pp. The book includes the complete text of the ISO JPEG
standards (DIS 10918-1 and draft DIS 10918-2).
The original JPEG standard is divided into two parts, Part 1 being the actual
specification, while Part 2 covers compliance testing methods. Part 1 is
titled "Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-tone Still Images,
Part 1: Requirements and guidelines" and has document numbers ISO/IEC IS
10918-1, ITU-T T.81. Part 2 is titled "Digital Compression and Coding of
Continuous-tone Still Images, Part 2: Compliance testing" and has document
numbers ISO/IEC IS 10918-2, ITU-T T.83.
The JPEG standard does not specify all details of an interchangeable file
format. For the omitted details we follow the "JFIF" conventions, revision
1.02. JFIF 1.02 has been adopted as an Ecma International Technical Report
and thus received a formal publication status. It is available as a free
download in PDF format from
http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/techreports/E-TR-098.htm.
A PostScript version of the JFIF document is available at
http://www.ijg.org/files/jfif.ps.gz. There is also a plain text version at
http://www.ijg.org/files/jfif.txt.gz, but it is missing the figures.
The TIFF 6.0 file format specification can be obtained by FTP from
ftp://ftp.sgi.com/graphics/tiff/TIFF6.ps.gz. The JPEG incorporation scheme
found in the TIFF 6.0 spec of 3-June-92 has a number of serious problems.
IJG does not recommend use of the TIFF 6.0 design (TIFF Compression tag 6).
Instead, we recommend the JPEG design proposed by TIFF Technical Note #2
(Compression tag 7). Copies of this Note can be obtained from
http://www.ijg.org/files/. It is expected that the next revision
of the TIFF spec will replace the 6.0 JPEG design with the Note's design.
Although IJG's own code does not support TIFF/JPEG, the free libtiff library
uses our library to implement TIFF/JPEG per the Note.
ARCHIVE LOCATIONS
=================
The "official" archive site for this software is www.ijg.org.
The most recent released version can always be found there in
directory "files".
The JPEG FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) article is a source of some
general information about JPEG.
It is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.faqs.org/faqs/jpeg-faq/
and other news.answers archive sites, including the official news.answers
archive at rtfm.mit.edu: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/jpeg-faq/.
If you don't have Web or FTP access, send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu
with body
send usenet/news.answers/jpeg-faq/part1
send usenet/news.answers/jpeg-faq/part2
FILE FORMAT WARS
================
The ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 standards committee (also known as JPEG, together
with ITU-T SG16) currently promotes different formats containing the name
"JPEG" which are incompatible with original DCT-based JPEG. IJG therefore does
not support these formats (see REFERENCES). Indeed, one of the original
reasons for developing this free software was to help force convergence on
common, interoperable format standards for JPEG files.
Don't use an incompatible file format!
(In any case, our decoder will remain capable of reading existing JPEG
image files indefinitely.)
TO DO
=====
Please send bug reports, offers of help, etc. to jpeg-info@jpegclub.org.
Background
==========
libjpeg-turbo is a JPEG image codec that uses SIMD instructions (MMX, SSE2,
NEON, AltiVec) to accelerate baseline JPEG compression and decompression on
x86, x86-64, ARM, and PowerPC systems. On such systems, libjpeg-turbo is
generally 2-6x as fast as libjpeg, all else being equal. On other types of
systems, libjpeg-turbo can still outperform libjpeg by a significant amount, by
virtue of its highly-optimized Huffman coding routines. In many cases, the
performance of libjpeg-turbo rivals that of proprietary high-speed JPEG codecs.
libjpeg-turbo implements both the traditional libjpeg API as well as the less
powerful but more straightforward TurboJPEG API. libjpeg-turbo also features
colorspace extensions that allow it to compress from/decompress to 32-bit and
big-endian pixel buffers (RGBX, XBGR, etc.), as well as a full-featured Java
interface.
libjpeg-turbo was originally based on libjpeg/SIMD, an MMX-accelerated
derivative of libjpeg v6b developed by Miyasaka Masaru. The TigerVNC and
VirtualGL projects made numerous enhancements to the codec in 2009, and in
early 2010, libjpeg-turbo spun off into an independent project, with the goal
of making high-speed JPEG compression/decompression technology available to a
broader range of users and developers.
License
=======
libjpeg-turbo is covered by three compatible BSD-style open source licenses.
Refer to [LICENSE.md](LICENSE.md) for a roll-up of license terms.
Building libjpeg-turbo
======================
Refer to [BUILDING.md](BUILDING.md) for complete instructions.
Using libjpeg-turbo
===================
libjpeg-turbo includes two APIs that can be used to compress and decompress
JPEG images:
- **TurboJPEG API**<br>
This API provides an easy-to-use interface for compressing and decompressing
JPEG images in memory. It also provides some functionality that would not be
straightforward to achieve using the underlying libjpeg API, such as
generating planar YUV images and performing multiple simultaneous lossless
transforms on an image. The Java interface for libjpeg-turbo is written on
top of the TurboJPEG API.
- **libjpeg API**<br>
This is the de facto industry-standard API for compressing and decompressing
JPEG images. It is more difficult to use than the TurboJPEG API but also
more powerful. The libjpeg API implementation in libjpeg-turbo is both
API/ABI-compatible and mathematically compatible with libjpeg v6b. It can
also optionally be configured to be API/ABI-compatible with libjpeg v7 and v8
(see below.)
There is no significant performance advantage to either API when both are used
to perform similar operations.
Colorspace Extensions
---------------------
libjpeg-turbo includes extensions that allow JPEG images to be compressed
directly from (and decompressed directly to) buffers that use BGR, BGRX,
RGBX, XBGR, and XRGB pixel ordering. This is implemented with ten new
colorspace constants:
JCS_EXT_RGB /* red/green/blue */
JCS_EXT_RGBX /* red/green/blue/x */
JCS_EXT_BGR /* blue/green/red */
JCS_EXT_BGRX /* blue/green/red/x */
JCS_EXT_XBGR /* x/blue/green/red */
JCS_EXT_XRGB /* x/red/green/blue */
JCS_EXT_RGBA /* red/green/blue/alpha */
JCS_EXT_BGRA /* blue/green/red/alpha */
JCS_EXT_ABGR /* alpha/blue/green/red */
JCS_EXT_ARGB /* alpha/red/green/blue */
Setting `cinfo.in_color_space` (compression) or `cinfo.out_color_space`
(decompression) to one of these values will cause libjpeg-turbo to read the
red, green, and blue values from (or write them to) the appropriate position in
the pixel when compressing from/decompressing to an RGB buffer.
Your application can check for the existence of these extensions at compile
time with:
#ifdef JCS_EXTENSIONS
At run time, attempting to use these extensions with a libjpeg implementation
that does not support them will result in a "Bogus input colorspace" error.
Applications can trap this error in order to test whether run-time support is
available for the colorspace extensions.
When using the RGBX, BGRX, XBGR, and XRGB colorspaces during decompression, the
X byte is undefined, and in order to ensure the best performance, libjpeg-turbo
can set that byte to whatever value it wishes. If an application expects the X
byte to be used as an alpha channel, then it should specify `JCS_EXT_RGBA`,
`JCS_EXT_BGRA`, `JCS_EXT_ABGR`, or `JCS_EXT_ARGB`. When these colorspace
constants are used, the X byte is guaranteed to be 0xFF, which is interpreted
as opaque.
Your application can check for the existence of the alpha channel colorspace
extensions at compile time with:
#ifdef JCS_ALPHA_EXTENSIONS
[jcstest.c](jcstest.c), located in the libjpeg-turbo source tree, demonstrates
how to check for the existence of the colorspace extensions at compile time and
run time.
libjpeg v7 and v8 API/ABI Emulation
-----------------------------------
With libjpeg v7 and v8, new features were added that necessitated extending the
compression and decompression structures. Unfortunately, due to the exposed
nature of those structures, extending them also necessitated breaking backward
ABI compatibility with previous libjpeg releases. Thus, programs that were
built to use libjpeg v7 or v8 did not work with libjpeg-turbo, since it is
based on the libjpeg v6b code base. Although libjpeg v7 and v8 are not
as widely used as v6b, enough programs (including a few Linux distros) made
the switch that there was a demand to emulate the libjpeg v7 and v8 ABIs
in libjpeg-turbo. It should be noted, however, that this feature was added
primarily so that applications that had already been compiled to use libjpeg
v7+ could take advantage of accelerated baseline JPEG encoding/decoding
without recompiling. libjpeg-turbo does not claim to support all of the
libjpeg v7+ features, nor to produce identical output to libjpeg v7+ in all
cases (see below.)
By passing an argument of `--with-jpeg7` or `--with-jpeg8` to `configure`, or
an argument of `-DWITH_JPEG7=1` or `-DWITH_JPEG8=1` to `cmake`, you can build a
version of libjpeg-turbo that emulates the libjpeg v7 or v8 ABI, so that
programs that are built against libjpeg v7 or v8 can be run with libjpeg-turbo.
The following section describes which libjpeg v7+ features are supported and
which aren't.
### Support for libjpeg v7 and v8 Features
#### Fully supported
- **libjpeg: IDCT scaling extensions in decompressor**<br>
libjpeg-turbo supports IDCT scaling with scaling factors of 1/8, 1/4, 3/8,
1/2, 5/8, 3/4, 7/8, 9/8, 5/4, 11/8, 3/2, 13/8, 7/4, 15/8, and 2/1 (only 1/4
and 1/2 are SIMD-accelerated.)
- **libjpeg: Arithmetic coding**
- **libjpeg: In-memory source and destination managers**<br>
See notes below.
- **cjpeg: Separate quality settings for luminance and chrominance**<br>
Note that the libpjeg v7+ API was extended to accommodate this feature only
for convenience purposes. It has always been possible to implement this
feature with libjpeg v6b (see rdswitch.c for an example.)
- **cjpeg: 32-bit BMP support**
- **cjpeg: `-rgb` option**
- **jpegtran: Lossless cropping**
- **jpegtran: `-perfect` option**
- **jpegtran: Forcing width/height when performing lossless crop**
- **rdjpgcom: `-raw` option**
- **rdjpgcom: Locale awareness**
#### Not supported
NOTE: As of this writing, extensive research has been conducted into the
usefulness of DCT scaling as a means of data reduction and SmartScale as a
means of quality improvement. The reader is invited to peruse the research at
<http://www.libjpeg-turbo.org/About/SmartScale> and draw his/her own conclusions,
but it is the general belief of our project that these features have not
demonstrated sufficient usefulness to justify inclusion in libjpeg-turbo.
- **libjpeg: DCT scaling in compressor**<br>
`cinfo.scale_num` and `cinfo.scale_denom` are silently ignored.
There is no technical reason why DCT scaling could not be supported when
emulating the libjpeg v7+ API/ABI, but without the SmartScale extension (see
below), only scaling factors of 1/2, 8/15, 4/7, 8/13, 2/3, 8/11, 4/5, and
8/9 would be available, which is of limited usefulness.
- **libjpeg: SmartScale**<br>
`cinfo.block_size` is silently ignored.
SmartScale is an extension to the JPEG format that allows for DCT block
sizes other than 8x8. Providing support for this new format would be
feasible (particularly without full acceleration.) However, until/unless
the format becomes either an official industry standard or, at minimum, an
accepted solution in the community, we are hesitant to implement it, as
there is no sense of whether or how it might change in the future. It is
our belief that SmartScale has not demonstrated sufficient usefulness as a
lossless format nor as a means of quality enhancement, and thus our primary
interest in providing this feature would be as a means of supporting
additional DCT scaling factors.
- **libjpeg: Fancy downsampling in compressor**<br>
`cinfo.do_fancy_downsampling` is silently ignored.
This requires the DCT scaling feature, which is not supported.
- **jpegtran: Scaling**<br>
This requires both the DCT scaling and SmartScale features, which are not
supported.
- **Lossless RGB JPEG files**<br>
This requires the SmartScale feature, which is not supported.
### What About libjpeg v9?
libjpeg v9 introduced yet another field to the JPEG compression structure
(`color_transform`), thus making the ABI backward incompatible with that of
libjpeg v8. This new field was introduced solely for the purpose of supporting
lossless SmartScale encoding. Furthermore, there was actually no reason to
extend the API in this manner, as the color transform could have just as easily
been activated by way of a new JPEG colorspace constant, thus preserving
backward ABI compatibility.
Our research (see link above) has shown that lossless SmartScale does not
generally accomplish anything that can't already be accomplished better with
existing, standard lossless formats. Therefore, at this time it is our belief
that there is not sufficient technical justification for software projects to
upgrade from libjpeg v8 to libjpeg v9, and thus there is not sufficient
technical justification for us to emulate the libjpeg v9 ABI.
In-Memory Source/Destination Managers
-------------------------------------
By default, libjpeg-turbo 1.3 and later includes the `jpeg_mem_src()` and
`jpeg_mem_dest()` functions, even when not emulating the libjpeg v8 API/ABI.
Previously, it was necessary to build libjpeg-turbo from source with libjpeg v8
API/ABI emulation in order to use the in-memory source/destination managers,
but several projects requested that those functions be included when emulating
the libjpeg v6b API/ABI as well. This allows the use of those functions by
programs that need them, without breaking ABI compatibility for programs that
don't, and it allows those functions to be provided in the "official"
libjpeg-turbo binaries.
Those who are concerned about maintaining strict conformance with the libjpeg
v6b or v7 API can pass an argument of `--without-mem-srcdst` to `configure` or
an argument of `-DWITH_MEM_SRCDST=0` to `cmake` prior to building
libjpeg-turbo. This will restore the pre-1.3 behavior, in which
`jpeg_mem_src()` and `jpeg_mem_dest()` are only included when emulating the
libjpeg v8 API/ABI.
On Un*x systems, including the in-memory source/destination managers changes